Slaughter of the innocents
Thursday, June 4, 2009

The Golden Legend

The picture above shows the slaughter of the innocents from an online version of The Golden Legend.

I’ve put up links to both volumes of The Golden Legend. I’ve also put a link to a modernized version of Butler’s Lives of the Saints here. The four volume edition seems to be out of print, but can also be ordered through Amazon. People who like Gilbert and Sullivan might like The Golden Legend cantata. It doesn’t seem to have too much, if anything, to do with the book, in fact it apparently derives from a poem by Longfellow, but the description indicates it has a similar theme and a miracle to make for a happy ending.

The Golden Legend is a work of theology and hagiography by Jacobus de Voragine that dates from the 13th century. It’s organized according to the liturgical year, so I think that rather than trying to do the work as a whole I’ll do whatever The Golden Legend has for the current day. Since we’ve had the feast of the Ascension and Pentecost I’ll start with those, and try to bring the readings into sync with the current calendar.

A word about veracity. The Golden Legend is probably one of the few books from Princeton University Press to carry the imprimatur and the nihil obstat. There’s a fairly standard declaration that these do not mean that the bishops, and the censors in charge of granting these certifications, necessarily agree with the opinions therein. What this means is that you may believe or disbelieve the contents of the book without necessarily falling into heresy. This applies to the facts in these books, particularly works of hagiography. If you want to believe that St. Vitus cured Diocletian’s son, that’s fine, but you shouldn’t get upset with someone else, such as me, who thinks the story lacks psychological veracity. So the stories are entertaining, and morally uplifting, but that doesn’t mean that everyone has to accept them as true, merely that there’s no spiritual harm in believing that they’re true. For myself, I find some of the stories improbable, and others I thinks offer opportunity for sermons, or meditation.

  1. The Ascension—This is a moderately long entry about the feast of the Ascension. Jacobus asks several questions about the Ascension, “&hellipwhere he ascended from; why he did not ascend immediately after the resurrection but waited forty days; with whom he ascended; by what merit he ascended; where he ascended to; and why he ascended. Jacobus gives answers to all of these questions, but rather than try to summarize them, I’ll mention some of his answers to the last question. He brings down the love of God to us through the Holy Spirit. It increases our knowledge of God. It increases faith and provides us with security. It strengthens our hope, and it marks out the way for us. These are only some of the reasons that Jacobus gives.
  2. The Holy Spirit—This pertains to the feast of Pentecost. Jacobus gives a series of eight questions about the event. Rather than summarizing the whole section I’ll just cover one or two of the more interesting passages. Jacobus asks the question, in how many ways was the Holy Spirit sent. His answer is that he was sent visibly and invisibly. He quotes St. Bernard in a nearly ecstatic passage: “regarding the invisible Word: 'It does not come in through the eyes, because it has no color; nor through the nostrils, because it does not mingle with the air but with the mind, nor does it taint the| air but makes it; nor through the jaws, because it cannot be chewed or gulped; nor through corporeal touch, because it is not palpable. So you ask: if the ways of the Word are so untraceable, how do you know he is present? The answer: I bave known his presence when my heart was touched with fear; when I fled from vice, I knew the strength of his power; from what my eyes tell me and make me see, I marvei at the depth of the Word's wisdom; from the slightest amendment of my manner of life, I have come to experience his kindness and gentleness, and from the reformation and renewal of the spirit of my mind, I have somehow perceived the splendor of his beauty; and seeing all this at once,| I stand in awe of the multiplicity of his greatness." Jacobus talks about the love of the Holy Spirit. Many people think of love, particularly God’s love, as a sort of marshmallow gooiness. Jacobus has a far different idea, one that would appeal to the saint who wrote The Living Flame of Love: “The fourth reason is the nature of iove itself. Fire expresses the significance of love in three ways. First, fire is always in motion, and love keeps those whom the Holy Spirit fills always moving in good works. So Gregory says: "The love of God is never idle. If it is love, it accomplishes great things, and if it accomplishes nothing, it is not love." Second, of all the elements fire is the most formal: it has little matter and much form. In the same way the love of the Holy Spirit makes those whom he fills have little love for earthly things and much love for celestial and spiritual things, so that it is not carnal things loved carnally but rather spiritual things loved spiritually. Bernard distinguishes four ways of loving: to love the flesh for the flesh, the spirit for the flesh, the flesh for the spirit, and the spirit for itself. Third, fire has the power to bend high things downwards, to tend upwards, to bring fluids together and coagulate them; and by that we are to understand the triple force of love, as we learn from Dionysius's words in the book On the Divine Names: "Love has three kinds of force, namely, the inclinative, the elevative, and the coordinative: it inclines the higher toward the lower, elevates the lower toward the higher, and coordinates equals with equals." Thus Dionysius. The Holy Spirit produces this triple power of love in those whom he fills, because he lowers them by humility and contempt of self, elevates them toward desire for the things that are above, and coordinates them by uniformity of moral values."
  3. Sts. Gordianus & Epimachus—May 10. Jacobus gives the etymology of the names. Gordianus was a commisioner under Emperor Julian who attempted to compel Januarius to sacrifice to the gods. Gordianus was converted instead, and beheaded. His body was thrown to the dogs, but remained untouched for a week. He was buried with Epimachus in the year 360 or 362.
  4. Sts. Nereus & Achilleus—May 12. Nereus and Achilleus were eunuchs “in charge of the private chambers of Domitilla, the niece of the emperor Domitian.” The saints persuade her to convert to Christianity, and to preserve her virginity. They tell her, essentially, that men are beasts, and that she’ll be beaten and abused and that her husband will be chasing after the chambermaid. That last bit sounds reminiscent of “Everybody ought to have a maid,” but Jacobus is deadly serious. Domitilla takes the veil from Pope St. Clement. (I think nuns come about at a later date than 80AD, but that’s what Jacobus says.) When Domitilla’s husband-to-be hears about this, he turns them and they’re beheaded. Now comes the part that gives hagiography a bad name. Among Domitilla’s companions is one named Marco. He is supposed to be crushed under a rock that is so big 70 men can barely lift it. It is thrown on him, and he catches it on his shoulder, and carries it for two miles. This is supposed to have brought many to the faith. Other companions were put in a room that was set on fire. Their unmarked bodies are buried by St. Caesarius.
  5. St. Pancratius (Pancras)—May 12. This is the saint for whom the ward of St. Pancras was named. So what you may ask. Well, George Bernard Shaw was a vestryman for St. Pancras for a while. Here’s a map of the area. More information about this area of London can be found here, or on Wikipedia. As for the saint, he was supposed to have been martyred at age 14 under Diocletian. Diocletian is supposed to have advised him to abandon Christianity. Pancratius rebuked the emperor, so naturally Diocletian had him beheaded. Jacobus says that according to Gregory of Tours that those who swear falsely near the saint’s tomb will be punished. Jacobus tells a story about a judge and two litigants. The judge knows that one of them is lying, and forces him to swear near the tomb of St. Peter. Nothing happens, and the judge decides that St. Peter is deferring to someone younger, and they go to the tomb of St. Pancratius. The guilty manswears with his hand on the tomb, and is transfixed there until he dies. As a result difficult cases are settled by oath over the saint’s relics.
  6. St. Urban—May 25. This is Pope Urban I. He was ordered to sprinkle incense before an idol, but when Urban prayed before it, the idol fell and killed 22 pagan priests.
  7. St. Petronilla—May 31. She was the daughter of St. Peter. She is supposed to have been very beautiful, and St. Peter willed her to suffer continually from fever. When Flaccus asked for her hand, she tells him to have maidens come to accompany her to his house. She thereupon begins a regime of prayer, fasting, and Holy Communion. After three days she “migrated to the Lord.” For additional information see here and here. For a picture, see here. (Note: I think Jacobus uses three because it’s a sacred number. It takes far longer, even on no water regimens, to starve to death. Back in the 1970s I was on a liquid protein diet, and got 300 calories a day, about what an inmate in Auschwitz got, if he was lucky, and lost 60 pounds in two months. Bobby Sands, an IRA member, spent about the same about of time before dying of starvation in a British prison.)
  8. St. Peter the Exorcist—June 2. St. Peter was bound in prison, and his jailer scoffed at him, and said that he if could escape from increased chains and cure his daughter, who was possessed, he would become a Christian immediately. It happened, and the jailer, Archemius, and his whole family converted. Various miracles are described. The final one is that an executioner, Dorotheus, “saw their souls, gowned in splendid, jeweled vesture, taken up to heaven by angels.” He became a Christian and died a happy death
  9. Sts. Primus & Felicianus—June 9. Primus and Felicianus were martyred under Diocletian. According to Jacobus Primus angered the prefect, who “ordered flaming torches to be held to the saint’s sides and molten lead to be poured into his mouth, while Felicianus, whom they hoped to frighten, looked on, but Primus drank the lead with pleasure, as if it were cool water.” After the drink of lead, two lions are unleashed, but they acted like “gentle lambs.” Then came the she-bears, but they proved gentle too. Out of 12,000 who witnessed this 500 became Christians. After this, they were beheaded. (Note: Crassus was forced to drink molten gold after his defeat at Carrhae. A Spanish governor, in 1599, was forced to drink gold. There was an article written about the latter incident, that can be found here. It should be noted that one of the footnoted sources is dubious at best, and downright fraudulent at worst.)
  10. St, Barnabas—June11. There are several pages of praise for Barnabas before we arrive at the story of his death. Barnabas and Paul have a quarrel and the two separate. Paul to go to Jerusalem, and Barnabas to return home to Cyprus. Barnabas returns to Cyprus with John Mark and the gospel of Matthew. When he holds the book over sick people many are cured. When Barnabas sees nude men and women running to celebrate a feast, he curses the temple, and causes it to fall down, crushing many devotees. (Note: I don’t believe that casual, public nudism was practiced in Greece or Cyprus at this time. There was public nudity at the games and the gymnasium, as we saw in Maccabees, and there was ceremonial nudity in the processions at Sparta, as we saw in our discussion of Lycurgus, but those are different from what Jacobus seems to be describing here.) When Barnabas arrives at Salamina a sorcerer stirs up the Jews to riot against him. A rope is put around his neck, and he is dragged out of the city, and then burned. His burial site is supposed to have been revealed by him in 500.
  11. Sts. Vitus & Modestus—June 15. Vitus is supposed to have been martyred when he was 12. The prefect Valerian had him whipped, and the man who whipped him suffered a withered hand. Vitus challenged him to be healed by the pagan gods. When asked if he can heal the man, he says he can, and prays, and the man is healed. He’s apparently returned to his father, and is surrounded by music and “sporting girls and other kinds of pleasure.” No sport is given for the girls, so I supposed they were probably into synchronized swimming, or something similarly wholesome. His father shuts him up in his room, and sees seven angels surrounding Vitus. He casts out a demon from the son of Diocletian, but is imprisoned anyhow. None of the punishments that Jacobus list are sufficient to kill Vitus and Modestus. They finally give themselves up to the lord, and their bodies are guarded by eagles. St. Vitus is the patron saint of dancers, so say a prayer to him the next time you watch Dancing With the Stars.
  12. Saint Quiricius and His Mother Saint Julitta—June 16. Quiricius was three years old. He and his mother journeyed to Alexandria to escape persecution in Iconium. There they ran afoul of the local governor, Alexander. Alexander takes the child and holds on to him while urging the mother to sacrifice to the gods. She refuses, so he has her scourged with raw thongs. All this time he is dandling the baby on his knee. He and the toddler watch the mother being tortured. The child scratches Alexander and cries out “I too am a Christian.” Jacobus says that “Alexander, enraged and in pain from the wound, threw him from the height of the tribunal, his tender brains spilling down the steps.” Julitta gives thanks that her son preceded her to heaven, and Alexander orders her flayed alive, plunged into boiling pitch, and beheaded. The bodies were cut up, but an angel collected the piece so they could be buried. According to Jacopus, their bodies were discovered by one of Julitta’s serving maids during the reign of Constantine. However, Jacobus puts the date of the martyrdom at 230. Constantine became emperor in 312. The maid would have had to be in her 90s or older for this to be true, so this part of the story should be taken with a grain of salt, even if you accept the rest.
  13. Saint Marina—June 18. I think St. Marina didn’t like my previous attempt at a lighthearted post because iWeb kept crashing. So I shall keep it serious. According to Jacobus she was three years old when her mother died. Her father took her into a monastery, where she lived disguised as a male. She was accused of fathering a child, and ultimately proved innocent. She is venerated in the Maronite rite. You can find more about her on Wikipedia as St. Marina the Monk.
  14. Saints Gervasius & Protasius—June 19. These were twin brothers who were martyred in Milan under Nero. Their bodies, and a book describing their life and death, were discovered in the late 4th century by St. Ambrose. The story given by Jacobus is that Ambrose was at prayer when two youths appeared and prayed with him. Ambrose prayed that if it was an illusion it would not be repeated, but if it was true, that it would be repeated. The youths appeared a second night, and on the third night appeared with someone that Ambrose recognized as St. Paul based on a painting that he’d seen. Paul gives explicit instructions on where to dig to recover the bodies. They are discovered intact and incorrupt. (Note: In the Orthodox church incorruption is the ultimate proof of holiness. This is why Alexei in The Brothers Karamazov is upset by Father Zozzima’s post-mortem odor.) Jacobus also relates a story about a man who is possessed by a demon. He cites Augustine for both stories. Here is Augustine’s version of the story “There is a country-seat called Victoriana, less than thirty miles from Hippo-regius.  At it there is a monument to the Milanese martyrs, Protasius and Gervasius.  Thither a young man was carried, who, when he was watering his horse one summer day at noon in a pool of a river, had been taken possession of by a devil.  As he lay at the monument, near death, or even quite like a dead person, the lady of the manor, with her maids and religious attendants, entered the place for evening prayer and praise, as her custom was, and they began to sing hymns.  At this sound the young man, as if electrified, was thoroughly aroused, and with frightful screaming seized the altar, and held it as if he did not dare or were not able to let it go, and as if he were fixed or tied to it; and the devil in him, with loud lamentation, besought that he might be spared, and confessed where and when and how he took possession of the youth. At last, declaring that he would go out of him, he named one by one the parts of his body which he threatened to mutilate as he went out and with these words he departed from the man.  But his eye, falling out on his cheek, hung by a slender vein as by a root, and the whole of the pupil which had been black became white.  When this was witnessed by those present (others too had now gathered to his cries, and had all joined in prayer for him), although they were delighted that he had recovered his sanity of mind, yet, on the other hand, they were grieved about his eye, and said he should seek medical advice.  But his sister’s husband, who had brought him there, said, “God, who has banished the devil, is able to restore his eye at the prayers of His saints.”  Therewith he replaced the eye that was fallen out and hanging, and bound it in its place with his handkerchief as well as he could, and advised him not to loose the bandage for seven days.  When he did so, he found it quite healthy.  Others also were cured there, but of them it were tedious to speak” (City of God, XXII, 8)
  15. Birth of St. John the Baptist—June 24. As he did with the Holy Spirit, Jacobus gives us a number of considerations for the birth of John. One set that is interesting is about Zechariah’s doubt of Gabriel’s message. Jacvobus points out that one may be excused for doubting, and cites Abraham, Gideon, and Sara. He asks why Zechariah was the only one punished for doubting. He then cites Bede, that he was struck dumb so that he might learn to believe; another reason is so that the miracle might be made more obvious, the miracle of Johns birth and the father’s restoration of speech being piled on top of one another; his voice was lost as another voice was being born; his muteness was itself the sign that he asked for.
  16. Jacobus gives an amusing story. The feast of the birth of John the Baptist and the feast of John the Evangelist used to coincide, but the Church moved the evangelist’s feast to after Christmas because the evangelist’s church was dedicated then. Two doctors of theology got into a dispute about who was greater, the Baptist or the evangelist, and finally scheduled a disputation. On the day of the disputation, however, “each of the saints appeared to his champion and said to him: ‘We get along very well together in heaven! Don’t start disputes about us on earth!’” The men told each other and the public about the visions, and the matter was put to rest.
  17. Sts. John and Paul—June 26. John and Paul are supposed to have been officials in the household of Constantia, the daughter of Constantine. When Julian came to power, they were martyred. Terentianus, their executioner, is supposed to have converted when his son was possessed by a demon. He became a Christian and wrote an account of the martyrs. This is supposed to have happened in 460. This is either a misprint, or an error in the text. Julian died in the 360s. (Supposedly by a javelin tossed by his own men. This led one person to remark that Julian was given the shaft.)
  18. St Leo, Pope—ND. Leo is supposed to have been tempted by a beautiful woman while saying Mass. Because the woman kissed his hand he cut it off. When people noticed that he wasn’t saying Mass, he asked the Blessed Virgin to help him. She appeared at his side, and put back his hand. When he confronted Attila, the Hun is supposed to have seen a might warrior standing by his side who warned him that disobedience to Leo that he and his people would perish.
  19. St. Peter—June 29. We all know that Peter was married, and that Jesus cured his mother-in-law. Evidently Peter’s wife died about the same time as Peter, and was also martyred under Nero. According to Jacobus, Peter’s words to her, as she was led away to execution, were “Dear wife, remember the Lord!” Jacobus is fairly decent about noting when he regards a story as apocryphal, and he does this with the story of Nero and the frog. According to Jacobus’ source Nero, after killing his mother and excising her womb, to see where he’d come from, wanted to know what it felt like to give birth. So he commanded his physicians to make him pregnant. They were supposed to have slipped a frog into a potion, which he drank. They used their skill to make the frog grow, and eventually Nero was delivered of a monstrous frog. Nero asked if that was what he was like when he was born, and the physicians said yes. (Is this the origin of the saying that if you eat a live toad first thing in the morning nothing worse will happen all day?)
  20. The bones of Sts. Peter and Paul were commingled, consequently “The faithful prayed and fasted persistently and obtained a response from heaven: The larger bones belong to the preacher, the smaller ones to the fisherman.” The bones were separated on this basis and put into their respective churches. According to another story Pope Silvester divided them by weight, and gave equal portions to the two churches.
  21. St. Paul—June 29. According to Jacobus, when Paul was led away to execution he converted his three guards. He tells them to return to the spot of his execution the next day, and they will find Titus and Luke praying. They will baptize the guards. The actual executioners challenged him, and said that they would believe when he came back to life. On the way he met Plantilla, and asked her for her veil, promising to return it after his execution. Paul, as the blow fell on his neck, is supposed to have removed the veil, “caught his own blood in it, rolled it up and folded it, and gave it to the woman.” When the executioner returns Plantilla asks where the body is, the executioner tells her he is in the Valley of Bones and is covered with her veil. She says Peter and Paul have come in shining garments and with crowns “gleaming with light on their heads,” whips out the bloody, still dripping veil and shows it to them. Many were converted that day, according to Jacobus.
  22. Paul’s head was, naturally, separated from his body, and the head was mixed in with a number of others. A shepherd stuck the head on a staff, and it glowed for three days, as aresult it was identified as Paul’s head.
  23. Jacobus gives a lengthy passage from Chrysostom about Paul. An interesting passage is as follows: “Not that fearing blows calls for reproach; what does deserve it is doing something unworthy out of fear of blows. The very fact that one who fears blows and wounds does not give up in a fight makes him more worthy of admiration than one who has no fear. So also,grieving is not blameworth, butto say or do out of grief something that displeases God&hellipthat is blameworthy.”
  24. The Seven Brothers—July 10. This is vaguely reminiscent of the martyrdom of the seven brothers that was described in Maccabees.
  25. St. Theodora—nd. A married woman who was deceived into adultery. She repented of her sin, and lived in a monastery where she passed as a man.
  26. St. Margaret—July 17 (East) July 20 (West). A young girl who was desired by a prefect. He attempted to force her to renounce Christianity, and she refused. She is supposed to have been swallowed by a dragon, but her cross irritated the beast, and she escaped. Jacobus indicates some disbelief of this part of the legend. She is one of the 14 holy helpers.
  27. St. Alexis—July 17. Alexis is supposed to have been the son of rich parents. After his birth they agreed to live in chastity. He was married, and he urged his wife to remain a virgin. He sold his possessions and went to live in Edessa. (Note: This is not to be confused with Odessa, either in the Ukraine or in Texas.) There was an image of Jesus there that was not supposed to have been done by human hands. I should note at this point that some 20 or 30 years ago I read a book about the shroud of Turin that referred to this picture. I believe the author postulated that it might be the Veil of Veronica or the shroud itself.
  28. St. Praxedes—July 21. Martyred in 165.
  29. St Mary Magdelene—July 22. She was of royal stock. Her father was Syrus and her mother Eucharia, her brother and sister were Lazarus and Martha. (I think the name Eucharia is doubtful, since it is Greek rather than Hebrew or Aramaic. However, it may be that the name is a Hellenized version of a Hebrew or Aramaic name much as Moses is for Moishe or Jesus is for Yeshua.) Jacobus identifies Martha with the hemorrhagic woman. According to Jacobus, Mary, Lazarus, Martha and some others wereset adrift without a pilot, and landed in Marseilles. Jacobus recounts various miracles attributed to Mary, which the interested reader can find when he or she reads the book. Had symbologist Robert Langdon, hero of The Da Vinci Code, bothered to read this, which as a symbologist he should have, he would have known that Margdalene’s tomb had been relocated in 769 from Aix to Vezelay. We would then have been spared a ludicrous book and a repellent movie.
  30. St. Apollinaris—July 23 (moved to July 20 in current calendar). In one of the instances recorded by Jacobus the saint was tortured but the Christians who saw this attacked and killed two hundred of them. I think this is one of the few times in the various martyrologies that someone takes violent action against their persecutors. The usual thing is for them to suffer extreme torture, and then be martyred. Apollinaris lived for several more years, and died under Vespasian.
  31. St. Christina—July 24. Christina suffered gruesome torture by the order of her father. He ordered her thrown into the sea with a stone tied around her, but Jesus came down and baptized her, and put her in the care of the archangel Michael. In another attempt to kill her she is thrown into a pit with snakes but they cling harmlessly to her body. She is supposed to have died under Diocletian in 287.
  32. St. James the Greater—July 25. James is said by one of the authorities who Jacobus cites to have made onew disciple in Spain. This man, Philetus was made immobile by a magician, Hermogenes. Philetus sent a servant to James for assistance. Now how someone who is immobile can send a servant anywhere I don’t know. James gives the servant a handkerchief, and says he is to hold the cloth. This sets him free. Hermogenes sends demons against James, but the plan backfires, and they take him to James. He sets the magician free, and tells him that they (Christians) do not convert anyone against their will. (This stands in sharp contrast to Islam, which has no missionaries, other than those armed with the sword, who offer conversion or death.) Jacobus recounts other miracles, but you’ll have to read those for yourself.
  33. St. Christopher—July 25. Jacobus gives the story of Christopher carrying Christ across the river. He also gives some other stories. One of which involves the saint being shot at by arrows. The arrows stop in mid-air, but one blinds the man who ordered the execution. Christopher tells him to save his blood, and apply it to his eye, and he will be healed. The man does this, is healed, and becomes a convert.
  34. The Seven Sleepers—July 27 Western, August 4 Orthodox. Seven brothers were martyred under Decius by being shut in a cave. Some years later, when there was a dispute about the resurrection of the dead, they were resurrected in order to provide evidence of this. They appeared before the new emperor, and then expired.
  35. Sts. Nazarius and Celsus—July 28. Nazarius was the son of Jewish father and Christian mother. He, and his companion Celsus, died under Nero. St. Ambrose is said to have found their bodies. Nazarius was baptized by Linus before he succeeded Peter as pope.
  36. St. Felix—July 29. Felix was involved in a bit of a contretemps with the Emperor Constantius and Pope Liberius. While Jacobus lists him as a legitimate pope, he is now considered an anti-pope. It’s not clearfrom the footnote in the text whether or not he is still in the list of saints.
  37. Sts. Simplicius and Faustinus—July 29. These brothers were martyred, and their bodies were thrown into the Tiber. Their sister Beatrice recovered the bodies. The prefect Lucretius had Beatrice arrested, and ordered her suffocation. Afterward he gave a dinner party, and spoke disdainfully about the martyrs. This caused an infant to prophesy his death. Lucretius was thereupon possessed, and died three hours later. Naturally everyone at the banquet converted.
  38. St. Martha—July 29. Jacoubus tells a story about a dragon who lives in the Rhone between Aix and Avignon. The dragon “shoots its dung at pursuers within the space of an acre: whatever this touches is burned up as by fire.” As if the ordinary fire breathing dragon weren’t bad enough. Hollywood has never picked up on this aspect of dragons.
  39. Sts. Abdon and Sennen—July 30. Two men martyred under Decius. They were to be a beast feast, but the beasts turned them down, and they were beheaded.
  40. St. Germain
  41. St. Eusebius
  42. The Holy Maccabees
  43. St. Peter in Chains
  44. St. Stephen, Pope
  45. The Finding os St. Stephen
  46. St. Dominic
  47. St. Sixtus
  48. St. Donatus
  49. St. Cyriacus & Companions
  50. St. Laurence
  51. St. Hippolytus & Companions
  52. The Assumption
  53. St. Bernard